Society - People
By: - at October 10, 2013

15 Interesting Facts about John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the second son of Joseph Patrick Kennedy and Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy. He was not a healthy infant and when he contracted scarlet fever as a child, his father worried about him every single day. Joseph Kennedy was an ambitious man and had the confident goal of earning a million dollars before he reached the age of thirty-five. He would easily surpass his early financial goals and went on to be a grand provider for his family. John Kennedy went to Choate and later he attended Harvard. When John Kennedy was attending Harvard, his father Joseph did not have any political plans for him. Most of Joe's political aspirations were focused on John's older brother, Joe Jr. After Joe Jr. died in combat in 1944, John Kennedy became the subject of his father's goals of having a son in politics who would ultimately be a realistic presidential candidate. John Kennedy obliged his father and ran for the congressional seat in Massachusetts's eleventh district and later would become a U.S. Senator. In November 1960, John Kennedy became the first Catholic to win the presidency and brought his father's opportunistic dream to fruition.

Kennedy

Because of John Kennedy's infamous assassination, he wouldn’t even get to finish his first term in office.


15)  Kennedy Was Medically Disqualified from the Army in World War II, So He Joined the Navy Instead
During World War II, John F. Kennedy attempted to enlist for the Army, but due to his chronic back problems he was medically disqualified and would look into the Navy in order to participate in the armed services. Enlistment during World War II was at an all time high due to the global conflict. His application for the Navy was pushed through by Captain Alan Kirk, who was at the time director of the Office of Naval Intelligence. Kirk had previously been the Naval Attaché in London at the same time Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. was the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Kennedy was an ensign (also known as a first officer) in the Naval Reserve and was working as a staffer in the Office of Naval Intelligence. He attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps followed by the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center. He was promoted to lieutenant junior grade shortly after completing officer training. Once he finished the motor torpedo boat training, Kennedy was assigned as commanding officer of PT 101.

Kennedy at the Controls of PT 101
Kennedy at the Controls of PT 101

In February 1943, he was transferred to the Solomon Islands and took command of PT 109 in April.

U.S. Navy Map from 1943
U.S. Navy Map from 1943

Around 2AM on August 2, his boat was cut in half by a Japanese destroyer. 


14)  Kennedy Earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for His Rescue of the Crew of PT 109
When Kennedy's boat the PT 109 was cut in half, Kennedy and some of his shipmates found themselves hanging on to what was left of their boat. Kennedy began assessing the situation and began planning for a response to save his own life, and the lives of his remaining crew members.

PT 109 Aboard the Liberty Ship Joseph Stanton on the Way to the Pacific
PT 109 Aboard the Liberty Ship Joseph Stanton on the Way to the Pacific

Two of Kennedy's crew members were killed immediately from the wreck. After three hours of maneuvering among the wreckage, Kennedy was able to consolidate the survivors on the piece of the PT 109 he was floating on.

The Crew of PT 109
The Crew of PT 109

He decided that they should swim for a small island that was in their view, an island nearly three miles away from the wreckage. It took nearly five hours to reach the shore. In order to maneuver one of the injured men to the small island, Kennedy had to tow the man by his life jacket strap, holding the strap firmly in his teeth. Kennedy and his crew soon discovered that the island had no water or food, so the men swam to another (Kennedy towing the injured man), where they eventually found coconuts. Four days later, Kennedy and one of his officers swam to another island  where they found several natives, and gave one a message for the PT base. On August 8, Kennedy and his crew's ordeal finally ended and all of the survivors were rescued. Kennedy showed great bravery and leadership, and was rightfully awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal.


13)  The Warren Commission Came to One Conclusion about Kennedy’s Assassination, the House Select Committee on Assassinations Another
The Warren Commission, or the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, conducted hearings immediately following Kennedy’s assassination. Its unofficial name comes from Chief Justice Earl Warren, who was the chairman for the commission. The Warren Commission issued an 889-page final report on September 24, 1964, that it would later present to President Johnson and to the public on September 27.

Warren Commission Presenting Report to President Johnson
Warren Commission Presenting Report to President Johnson

The commission concluded there wasn't any evidence of a conspiracy and that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone. The Warren Commission also looked into Oswald's shooting right outside of the Dallas Police Station, where they concluded that Jack Ruby’s murder of Oswald was not part of a larger conspiracy. For both murders, the commission ruled that both were the actions of only two men and not a part of a larger government conspiracy.

Arlen Specter Reproducing the Single Bullet Theory
Arlen Specter Reproducing the Single Bullet Theory

The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations was commissioned in 1976 to investigate the assassinations of Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., as well as the shooting of Alabama Governor George Wallace. All three deaths occurred during the height of the Civil Rights Movement, and many U.S. citizens felt that there very well may of been something larger at play in all three shootings. The committee, which was made up of fourteen representatives, spent two years investigating the two infamous assassinations and assignation attempt on Governor George Wallace.

U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations
U.S. House Select Committee on Assassinations

The committee concluded that the evidence from the Kennedy assassination showed that, scientifically, it was likely there were two gunmen instead of only the one that the Warren Commission decided on. The Select Committee on Assassinations ruled that the Kennedy assassination was likely the result of a conspiracy, but the committee did not allude to it being either Soviet or Cuban in origin.


12)  Kennedy Was the Youngest Elected President
Kennedy was not the youngest man to become president, and that distinction belongs to Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt was not elected into office but rather he succeeded William McKinley, who was assassinated. Kennedy, who was 42 years and 236 days when he was inaugurated, is the youngest person to ever be elected to the office of President of the United States.

President-elect Kennedy Shaking Current President Eisenhower's Hand
President-elect Kennedy Shaking Current President Eisenhower's Hand

Kennedy was less than a year older than Roosevelt was when he took the office following McKinley's assassination. Kennedy was twelve years younger than the median age of all American presidents at the time of his inauguration. Kennedy began serving in the House of Representatives when he was only twenty-nine years old. He served in the House for six years until he was thirty-five and then ran for a Massachusetts Senate seat. He served there for nearly eight years, from thirty-five to forty-three. That gave him nearly fourteen years of experience as an active member of the legislative branch, which is far more experience than most U.S. presidents. Bill Clinton, the second-youngest elected president in the history of the office, had no governmental experience at the federal level before becoming president.

Theodore Roosevelt’s only federal experience is only represented by his short six months term as vice president. Despite his age, Kennedy was a highly qualified candidate.


11)  Kennedy Received Last Rites Three Times before His Death
Due to Kennedy’s physical condition and overall frailty, he had trouble walking, used crutches when he wasn't in the public eye, had to go down stairs sideways, and was plagued with Addison’s disease. Also Kennedy was devoutly Catholic, which is largely why receiving last rites was so important to him. At the time most treatments for Addison's disease led to additional infections and because of all of his health issues, he received last rites on multiple occasions before his death. He even received them three times before he even reached the age of forty.

Lt. Commander Joseph T. O'Callahan Giving Last Rites to an Injured Crewman
Lt. Commander Joseph T. O'Callahan Giving Last Rites to an Injured Crewman

The first time he received last rites was in 1947. The doctor who diagnosed him with Addison’s disease in England, believed that Kennedy had less than a year to live. He booked passage to the United States on the Queen Mary while he was severely ill, and a priest was brought aboard to administer the sacrament.

The second time was in 1951 when Kennedy was in Japan and plagued with an Addison’s crisis, apparently from neglecting his medication. His body temperature rocketed up to 106 degrees, and the attending doctors believed he may die. A priest was called to administer the sacrament.

Kennedy in 1954 after Undergoing Spinal Surgery
Kennedy in 1954 after Undergoing Spinal Surgery

The third time was in 1954. After Kennedy underwent a back operation to place a metal plate that hopefully would stabilize his spine, he developed a severe urinary tract infection as a complication from the surgery. He would get so sick that he would slip into a coma, and a priest once again was called to administer last rites to Kennedy.


10)  Kennedy Did Not Receive Valid Last Rites when He Was Assassinated
last ritesThe shots in Dealey Plaza were fired around 12:30PM CST. Kennedy was rushed to Parkland’s Trauma Room #1. Doctors described his condition as morbid at best and in other words, he was dead upon arrival. One doctor said, “We had no hope of saving his life.”

Jacqueline Kennedy was incessant that the President receive last rites as soon as possible. In compliance with Catholic doctrine, the sacrament of last rites needs to be administered before the soul leaves the body, and before the brain dies.

Reverend Oscar Huber left the room Kennedy’s body was in around 12:50PM. Reverend Huber told reporters that Kennedy’s body was covered with a sheet, more specifically already dead, when he arrived. Huber went on to try and comfort the First Lady, assuring her that the sacrament was indeed valid.

Book Depository Building - Dealey Plaza
Book Depository Building - Dealey Plaza
By Lowesvisa via Wikimedia Commons

The Warren Commission recorded his time of death at 1PM, a whole ten minutes after the actual time of death. There is some conjecture that in order to give the First Lady some piece of mind in terms of religious closure, that the time of death was altered slightly. Some believe this was done to provide the illusion of the sacrament being performed in time to ease the suffering of Jacqueline, when in all actuality it did not.





9)  Kennedy Wrote Profiles in Courage While Recovering from Back Surgery
Kennedy’s first published book was his senior thesis titled Why England Slept, which was released in 1940. During the same year as Kennedy matriculated from Harvard, Why England Slept became a bestseller. Kennedy’s second book, Profiles in Courage, was originally published in 1957 and Kennedy dedicated it to his wife, Jacqueline. Profiles in Courage won Kennedy the 1957 Pulitzer Prize for a biography. The book focused on eight senators who Kennedy believed had shown immense courage, despite great political pressure applied by their constituents and respective political parties.

The most interesting thing about the book isn’t who he profiled or the fact that he won a Pulitzer for it, but instead what Kennedy himself was going through when he wrote it.

John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award
John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award

In 1954 and 1955, Kennedy took two leaves of absence from the Senate. He took leave in order to have back surgery the first time, and the second time was to correct the initial surgery with an additional one. In a great moment of personal weakness and vulnerability, he took it upon himself to study courage and focused on examples of political courage to get him through his painful ordeal. He collaborated on the book with Ted Sorensen, who was his speechwriter all throughout his recovery. Kennedy acknowledged Sorensen’s role in writing it in the introduction and paid Sorensen a “more than fair” sum over several years for his role. Kennedy's book, Profiles in Courage has even inspired an award called the Profile in Courage Award. Notable winners have been former president Gerald Ford, Edward Kennedy, and Jennifer Brunner.


8)  The 1960 Election Had One of the Closest Results in Popular Votes of Any Presidential Election
In the 1960 election, the results were so close that Kennedy’s win wasn’t made official until noon on November 9, 1960, a whole day after the election. Kennedy won the popular vote by just .17 percent. Based on popular vote alone, the 1960 election between Kennedy and Nixon is the closest U.S. popular election of all time. Kennedy won only 118,574 more total votes than Nixon did.

Kennedy and Nixon in a 1960 Presidential Debate
Kennedy and Nixon During a Presidential Debate

When examining electoral votes, the margin of victory between Kennedy and Nixon was not unprecedented like the popular vote count. Kennedy won 303 electoral votes compared to Nixon’s 219 which works out to 56.4 percent of the electoral vote, versus 40.8 percent.

President Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon Johnson
President Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon Johnson

The 1960 election was also the first one in which both men running for office were born in the twentieth century. Other key issues during the election have to do with Kennedy being a Catholic, considering up to this point no Catholic had ever been elected to the White House. It should be noted that no Catholic had been elected before or since Kennedy. It is estimated that Kennedy's Catholicism cost him an estimated 1.5 million votes.


7)  Kennedy’s Stance on Civil Rights during His Administration Started Slow
On October 19, 1960, Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested during an Atlanta sit-in. John Kennedy and Robert Kennedy immediately got involved. John Kennedy called Coretta Scott King out of concern and support and Robert Kennedy called the judge and helped secure King’s safe release. Due to the Kennedy brothers' immediate action during one of the most turbulent periods of American history, Kennedy received more than 70 percent of the African-American vote nationwide less than a month later.

President Kennedy's Civil Rights Address
Kennedy civil rights address

However, he was slow to act on civil rights once he assumed the office of president because he was afraid of alienating members of congress from southern states. But when James Meredith was denied admission to the University of Mississippi, both John and Robert (U.S. Attorney General) acted. Kennedy's administration sent federal marshals to escort Meredith and when rioting ultimately erupted, he sent in the National Guard to try to create some stability. When Bull Connor started using fire hoses and police dogs in Birmingham to stop Civil Rights demonstrations, Kennedy sent in several thousand troops to stop the horrible abuses of power that were being seen on television sets across the nation. He forced the integration of the University of Alabama by federalizing and sending in the Alabama National Guard. His administration moved on to work on a comprehensive civil rights bill.

Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. - June 22, 1963
Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. - June 22, 1963

Unfortunately, Kennedy didn’t live to see his civil rights bill become law which happened in 1964 when the Civil Rights Act was passed and signed by President Lyndon Johnson.

Lyndon Johnson Signing the 1964 Civil Rights Act
Lyndon Johnson Signing the 1964 Civil Rights Act


6)  On May 25, 1961, Kennedy Said the United States Would Land a Man on the Moon by 1970
During the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union were in competition over a new frontier beyond the nuclear arms race: space exploration technology. Not only did the Soviet Union launch Sputnik in 1957, but it also put the first man in space in April 1961. Kennedy saw the Soviet's space achievement as a symbol of the United States falling behind, and the need for the U.S. to become more competitive. There was only a month’s difference between the first Soviet cosmonaut orbiting Earth and the first American astronaut in space, but politically the Soviet achievement was still seen as an embarassment.

Kennedy consulted with NASA Administrator James Webb, Vice President Johnson, and other officials in order to come to the conclusion by being the first country to land a man on the moon would be a fantastic display of technological superiority.

Famous Moon Speech on May 25, 1961
Famous Moon Program Speech on May 25, 1961

On May 25, 1961, Kennedy went before a joint session of Congress and made a speech announcing his intention to land a man on the moon within the decade.

Kennedy Getting an Explanation of the Saturn V Launch System from Dr. Wernher von Braun
Kennedy Getting an Explanation of the Saturn V Launch System from Dr. Wernher von Braun

In 1969, more than five years after Kennedy’s death, Project Apollo and a manned mission to the moon became a reality. During that same year on July 20th, Neil Armstrong walked on the moon bringing Kennedy's dream of beating the Soviets to the moon a reality.


5)  The Bay of Pigs Assault-turned-fiasco
On April 17, 1961, all while the first cosmonaut was orbiting the Earth and the first U.S. astronaut to reach space, 1,400 Cubans living in exile mounted a failed invasion of Cuba during the Bay of Pigs.

The Bay of Pigs invasion was initially approved by President Eisenhower in March 1960, after Castro rose to power in a 1959 armed revolt. The plan was to have the CIA train Cubans living in exile in Guatemalan refugee camps. The news of the training camps and the CIA's involvement spread among Cuban exiles in Miami, and was eventually leaked to Castro.

bay of pigs

Kennedy was briefed on the invasion plan before he was inaugurated. He eventually authorized it in February 1961, and touted that disguising all U.S. involvement would be crucial to the success of the attack.

Kennedy and Eisenhower Discussing Bay of Pigs Crisis at Camp David
Kennedy and Eisenhower Discussing Bay of Pigs Crisis at Camp David

The actual invasion began on April 15, and almost from the start problems kept occurring. The B-26 bombers used in the invasion missed many of their targets, leaving the Cuban air force largely unharmed and the trained exiled Cubans at the mercy of Cuban air support. On April 17, the invasion force landed at the Bay of Pigs. The exiled Cubans came under heavy fire immediately, and Castro ordered a massive counterattack. More than a hundred CIA trained invaders were killed, nearly 1,200 surrendered, and a few escaped. Negotiating with Castro over the release of the prisoners took twenty months. The invasion turned out to be a huge embarrassment for Kennedy’s administration, and a horrible way to start his presidency. 


4)  Kennedy Championed the Arts and Culture
When Kennedy was at boarding school, he found that he was madly passionate of reading. His love of reading left him with a fondness for literature and poetry, though he never thought of himself as an intellectual. His favorite poets were Lord Byron and Robert Frost. Musically, he preferred Irish ballads and Broadway show tunes to classical music. Early on Kennedy recognized how important it is for the president to recognize, as well as show regard for intellectual and cultural excellence. Keeping this in mind he invited Frost to read a poem at his inauguration. He also invited over fifty musicians, poets, painters, and writers to the occasion.

John F. Kennedy Memorial Center for Performing Arts - Washington D.C.
John F. Kennedy Center for Performing Arts - Washington D.C.

At a White House dinner for Nobel Prize winners, he called them “the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered together at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.” The Kennedys also made sure to invest in the next generation’s arts and culture with, among other things, Concerts for Young People at the White House. The Kennedys held a dinner to which they invited leading musicians, writers, and artists from around the nation. The intent was to enhance and solidify permanently, the role of arts in America.


3)  Kennedy Started the Peace Corps
Kennedy—then the junior senator from Massachusetts—made a campaign speech on October 14, 1960, at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. The speech was delivered around two in the morning, to a surprisingly large and energetic group. The speech was improvised and in it, he asked how many students would be willing to work in the Foreign Service or spend their days as doctors in Ghana. Very quickly a petition was passed around and the results were that some 1000 students agreed that they would be willing to perform some sort of foreign service.

Kennedy and Johnson Greeting Peace Corps Volunteers at the White House
Kennedy and Johnson Greeting Peace Corps Volunteers at the White House

Two weeks later, on November 2, 1960, he gave a speech at the Cow Palace in San Francisco. During this speech, he proposed a “peace corps of talented men and women” helping to further global peace, and the forward peaceful progress of developing countries. This speech was given six days before the 1960 presidential election.

Kennedy Greeting Peace Corps Volunteers - August 28, 1961
Kennedy Greeting Peace Corps Volunteers - August 28, 1961

Thankfully there was an overwhelming amount of support for his proposed peace corps, and the program immediately gained traction. He began the process in his inaugural address with the famous line, “And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country.”


2)  While a Member of Congress and as President, Kennedy Donated His Entire Salary to Charity
John F. Kennedy began donating his entire salary to charity in 1947, when he became a congressman for Massachusetts’s eleventh district. Between his nearly two years as president (as of the end of 1962), eight years as a Massachusetts senator, and six years as a congressman, he donated a total of nearly $500,000. This figure does not take into consideration his salary from 1963 and when that’s included, his salary donated to charity rises to nearly $650,000. His salary as president was $100,000 annually and his allowance for personal expenses was $50,000, which Kennedy donated all of it to charity.

Joseph Kennedy Sr. and Family
Joseph Kennedy Sr. and Family

He was able to do this because of his family’s tremendous wealth. His father, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., was estimated by Fortune to be worth more than $250 million dollars just three years before John F. Kennedy won the presidency. When that $250 million is adjusted for inflation, Joseph Kennedy would be a billionaire today. If it wasn't for his family's immense fortune, it is very unlikely that Kennedy could of afforded to donate his entire income to charity, despite his documented commitment to charity.


1)  Kennedy Was Very Ill and Hid It from the Public
Kennedy was sick most of his life and from age thirteen on, he started experiencing sever abdominal pain. In 1934, Kennedy was sent to the Mayo Clinic where he would be diagnosed with colitis. Six years after he started having back pain, he had his first back operation. In 1947, three years after his first back operation, Kennedy was diagnosed with Addison’s disease which is also known as adrenal insufficiency. The disease is caused by a failure of the adrenal glands to produce enough steroid hormones for survival. In order to keep on going, Kennedy needed to be injected daily with corticosteroids. Due to the serious treatments with steroids, he was prone to bacterial infections and contracted them quite often.

Kennedy Meeting With Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Kennedy Meeting With Nikita Khrushchev

He had two more back operations, on in 1954 and another to correct the first in 1955. His back problems were due to osteoporosis and compression fractures. JFK is predominantly photographed seated, due to fits of extreme pain. Beginning in 1955, Kennedy became narcotic pain killer dependent and Kennedy needed a whole medicine cabinet full of medications just to keep going. Even with all of his personal pain and illnesses, he still managed to function as one of the most charismatic presidents in U.S. history.

Kennedy and His Children John and Caroline at Camp David
Kennedy and His Children John and Caroline at Camp David

A quick side note: If you look at all of the photos picturing Kennedy with his children, he is never pictured holding them unless he is sitting. His extreme back issues often rendered him so week, that he couldn't even pick up his own children.


Final Words
Tragically Kennedy was gunned down either by Oswald alone, or as a result of a much bigger government conspiracy. In his short tenure as president, he was able to get great governmental actions like The Civil Rights Act and the manned space program started. Without his foresight and political mind, sending a man to the moon and allowing a black man to eat with white people in the south, each could of taken decades to accomplish. The Peace Corps is still active and well-staffed with volunteers. NASA probably would have lost funding if not for Kennedy’s goal of landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s. His presidency started a family dynasty in politics, and even his brother Robert attempted to run for president and following in his brother's footsteps. Sadly Robert Kennedy was gunned down while campaigning for president in a hotel kitchen. Fortunately the legacy lives on with his Edward Kennedy holding a senate seat for most of his life and Patrick Joseph Kennedy II, the son of Edward Kennedy, a representative from Rhode Island. There has been a Kennedy in congress for some 64 years now, and all thanks to Joseph Kennedy Sr.'s grand dreams for himself and his family.



 

 

 

 

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